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For sheets put all the ingredients in a bowl, less flour, leave it on the fire until it boils for 2-3 minutes, then leave it to cool a little and add the flour. Mix until you get a good dough for spreading sheets. If it is too add more flour but not much because it will not be possible to spread the sheets well. Bake 4 sheets on the bottom of the tray greased with oil each time for 7-8 minutes each sheet.

For the cream boil the milk, add the semolina, mix until it thickens and leave to cool. Then mix with the margarine previously rubbed with sugar. Then add the peel and juice of a lemon.

The leaves are filled with cream and in the middle on a sheet we put apricot jam.

Top with powdered sugar. Leave for a few hours to soften the sheets then cut into the desired shape.

To make the cream you need a little patience.

The ingredients listed above are put on the fire in a small bowl, on the small eye on the stove. Less margarine. I don't make many bain-marie creams, because I don't have that much patience.

In addition to those listed above, my secret ingredient was grated orange peel. He completely changed the cream.

You can also find a delicious cream at lemon and meringue tart.

The mixture is ready when it becomes thick. Stir continuously so as not to form lumps.

Leave to cool, then mix with margarine. The margarine should be placed in a bowl and the mixer used. Add a little cream dough over the margarine. Until everything is ready.

It is the procedure that I do not really master, because it has happened several times to cut my cream. As I suffered now, only now I have not recovered. But I chose to keep the cream as it is.

How a hive is organized, the hierarchy and life of bees

The hive is the home of bees and an extremely important tool in beekeeping. Only one swarm of bees lives in a hive. The hive also serves as a shelter for the bee family, as a storehouse for food reserves, harvest and a container for the transport of bees.

In the natural environment, bees build their nests in hollows in trees, cracks in rocks, in caves or in other places away from wind, rain or the heat of the sun.

This is how man discovered the wealth of bees and harvested honey. With the new discovery, man continuously improved himself, first by protecting the swarms found in the forest, and then he built primitive shelters called coffins. In these shelters the bees build their nest from wax combs, located at equal distances from each other, fixed to the walls of the shelter just like in nature. Harvesting honey from the natural environment was accompanied by the destruction of the nest and thus it was not possible to develop the bee family, which is why bee houses were built.

In 1814, Procopovich built the first mobile hive in Russia. Improvements have been made in the construction of beehives with mobile frames, so that today's hives represent the experience of beekeepers over generations.


There are several elements that underlie the construction of hives:

Hive capacity it is extremely important and is determined by the space necessary for the development of the bee family in the peak periods of May and June but also by the space for storing food reserves and here we are talking about honey and pasture.

Frame shape and dimensions are determined by the requirements of the bee family for the formation of the winter cluster, by the best possible use of heat from the hive in cold and winter periods, by saving food supplies and the possibility of raising as many broods as possible. from February until April and beyond. For harvesting, the frame must ensure the possibility of obtaining a high quality honey.

In Romania, beekeepers have kept the frame length of 435 mm for all types of hives. The nest frames are 300 mm or 230 mm high and the harvest frames are 162 mm high.

& # 8211 The size of the beehives. They have a size of 7.5 mm and this is because bees cover with propolis the aisles or spaces smaller than 6 mm or fill the spaces larger than 10 mm with wax.

-The distance between the axes of the combs was determined by measurements performed in the natural shelters of bees.


Vertical hive it is used by beekeepers because it capitalizes on the behavior of bees in natural conditions and the principles underlying vertical development but also the productive activity of the bee family.

The vertical hives have the frames superimposed in two or more rows, inside the same box or in tiered bodies, they can have the opening above or on the side.

The multi-storey hive satisfies the biological requirements of bees and allows humans to easily direct the development of the bee family. This hive allows the inversion of the bodies, ie the operation by which the upper body in which the family nest has developed descends to the bottom of the hive and in its place the lower body with empty combs is placed. This creates an area where the queen has enough space for laying eggs and easily expands the growth of the brood.

Horizontal hives they are a shelter for bees consisting of a parallelepipedal room in which the frames are placed in a single row. .

The bees store the nectar starting with the upper part of the frames and during the abundant harvesting periods they continuously extend this area also in the cells from which the bees are born, which determines the descent of the breeding area of ​​the brood. Simultaneously with the storage of nectar, the young must continue to grow in order to preserve the family's potential.

When winter comes, the bee family's nest occupies the bottom of the frames where the honeycombs are free of honey and can provide space for the young to grow. As honey is consumed during the winter and especially in the spring, when the bee family is in full growth, the space occupied with supplies is reduced in favor of the space where the brood grows and the queen continuously lays eggs in the released space thus ensuring the development of the family.

The components of a hive

  • The hive cover
  • Nourishing Plateau
  • Store
  • Hive body (or nest)
  • The bottom of the hive
  • The packaging device
  • Hive equipment (storage and nest frames, warp block, diaphragm)


Bees are spread all over the globe, with the exception of the highest altitudes, the polar regions and some small oceanic islands. The greatest diversity of bee species is found in the warm, arid or semi-arid regions, South America and Mexico.

The largest number of bees in a hive is the worker bees, and their number in a family is from 15,000 to 20,000 in spring, and in summer they reach around 40,000, 60,000. In winter, their number drops to 20,000-30,000.

Due to the intense activity, the lifespan of bees is 27-30 days during harvesting and 40-60 days in spring and autumn. In the cold period when the bees do not participate in the harvesting, they can live from 7 to 9 months when feeding and caring for the young. It must also be said that the bee that stung a human or an animal dies because the needle breaks but also a part of the bees' digestive tract.


The swarm consists of three types of bees: the queen (queen), workers and drones.

As I told you, working bees are the majority of the population and are all females. However, worker bees cannot reproduce. They are altruistic, because they take care of the queen, and they perform practically all the tasks necessary to support the hive.

The most important is the queen who lives between 3 and 5 years and is the only one who lays eggs. And we're not talking about an egg or two. In one day, the queen lays up to 2,000 eggs, twice her weight.

Throughout the year, a prolific queen lays up to 200,000 eggs. All laid eggs will become worker bees, and unfertilized ones become drones. The queen can dose the number of eggs she fertilizes. How? The queen communicates with the other bees through pheromones. The pheromones secreted by the queen represent the distinct olfactory imprint of each swarm.

The workers know when the queen is dying, because she no longer releases pheromones. If the queen dies prematurely, without laying eggs, the bees will create a new queen from the existing larvae, if they do not have more than 3 days.

Working bees can be classified into: nurses, domestic bees, which are responsible for the maintenance of the hive, or as collectors whose role is to collect nectar, pollen, and water needed to sustain life.

The division of labor in a hive is given by the age of the working bees. The worker begins her life by cleaning the cell from which she was born, then moves on to caring for the baby and storing food and ends her life by collecting pollen, water and nectar.

Protein food recipes for bees

The second half of February and the beginning of March are characterized by the increase in brood growth in bee families and, implicitly, in the rather large increase in the consumption of existing food reserves in bee nests, so that monthly food consumption tends to at over 2 kg.

At the same time, I would like to point out that, considering that the year 2016 was disastrous from a beekeeping point of view, bee families did not enter the best conditions in winter and have already announced from some massive apiaries depopulation, mortality and even the disappearance of bee families. Thus, it becomes imperative to urgently assess the condition of bee families and to switch, if necessary, to feeding with energy and protein products.

And if, due to the appearance of the conditions for performing cleaning flights, we recommended the feeding of energetic cakes (pastas), now, with the appearance of the conditions for performing these flights, I also recommend the administration of protein feeds.

Protein feed products must mainly be based on pollen or pasture because the proteins obtained from pollen or pasture are needed by bees in the first place to raise the young, so that in order to prepare the food needed by the larvae, nurses need to consume pollen. But, it would be wrong to believe that the role of pollen is limited to this. The young bees must consume pollen for a few days after hatching, otherwise they will remain weak, with a substantially shortened lifespan. At the same time, it is known that nurse bees not only feed the brood, but also feed them protein overnight.

It should be noted that, for the replacement of pollen, skimmed milk, egg yolk, skimmed soy flour, deactivated brewer's yeast, etc. were tried as substitutes, but none of these substitutes proved their full viability. I personally recommend that in the case of feeding bees, pollen substitutes should not be used, but only pollen and pasture from healthy families or pollen harvested directly from man by nature, for example from corn panicles or hazelnut inflorescences.

Supplemental protein feed is administered in low doses and at short intervals because, when it is distributed in high doses and at large intervals, it creates nutritional shocks, which is detrimental to the general condition of the bee family.

The products and ways of administering protein food that I have set out to describe are: administration of pollen or pasture outside the hives, pollen cakes, honey and pasture cakes and frames with pollen or pasture. We have applied all these products and methods, most of the time successfully, to our own apiaries, and the feeding with various substitutes does not use them and I do not recommend them if you really want to have viable and healthy bees.

I also point out that the best protein food is pasture & honeycomb from the apiary reserve, honey used in mixtures must be liquefied, pollen harvested by bees & before use is finely ground, pasture and pollen used for feeding must not be older than one year and not to be frozen, and by using protein mixtures the spores can be activated and in this sense preventive measures must be taken.

Finally, do not forget that the bee is an intelligent insect, it knows whether it is active or not, but also to save money, we just need to know this and proceed as such.

Feeding bees with pollen or pasture outside the hives

When feeding in the open air, the pollen is exposed, in the days favorable to the flight of bees, in the form of dust, obtained by grinding the granules, in trays, crates, beehive lids or special feeders (fig. 1 and 2), placed in icy places, located & icircn in the immediate vicinity of the apiary.

In the case of pasture feeding, it is harvested on the occasion of the reformation of the old combs at the end of the summer or autumn of the previous year, retaining and storing important quantities in the apiary reserve. The pasture is kept in a dry, cool and dark place, without air containers (mandatory). It can also be kept in refrigerated form, but some of its qualities diminish in this case.

Feeding in open-air pastures is done as in the case of pollen, and for feeding on pollen and pasture we must be sure that we feed only the bees of our own apiary.

Pollen cakes

In the case of feeding, the pollen is administered inside the hive in the form of cakes and the cake paste is prepared from 20% ground pollen and 80% honey by kneading (fig. 3) and then the mixture is taken to a cool place (8-12 ° C), protected from light and dry, where they break daily.

After about two weeks the product becomes homogeneous, so it can be placed in bags of about 500 g (fig. 4) and then left to crystallize the honey and flatten the bags to a thickness to a thickness that is compatible with the space between the pods. and the upper backs of the nest frames of bee families.

When administered, the bags should be kept in a cool place (8-12 ° C), protected from light and dry.

Honey cakes and pasture

An older, but still current, recipe is honey and pasture paste. How to proceed: In January, honeycombs with pasture (fig. 5) are exposed to frost. Before freezing the pasture (be careful, it depreciates) and when it becomes brittle, it is cut in half through the cells, which are rubbed between the palms, obtaining the pasture (fig. 6).

The feed thus obtained is mixed with an equal amount of liquefied honey and placed in jars. When the jar is almost full, pour a layer of honey on top. Towards the end of winter, when we want to feed the bees, we pass the mixture of honey and pasture through the mincer. To 2 kg of pasta is poured, dripping and mixing, 1 liter of warm water, in which I dissolved 20 g of table salt.

Make 0.5 kg dumplings and administer over the frames. The administration can last until the appearance of pollen in nature, from 10 to 10 days. To prevent the appearance of nosemosis, some of the water can be replaced with teas from various plants or protophilic.

Pollen frames

It should be noted that the protein food in the hives is more difficult to keep as a reserve, especially since in autumn bees consume almost all the pasture, forming the fatty body.

Obviously, there is a need, when a favorable time window appears, to insert a frame with protein food next to the frames with the beginning of the brood and this frame is prepared as follows:

Pollen, not older than one year, is taken, ground very finely, after which it is sprinkled on the honeycomb cells (fig. 7) until they are filled, then the cells are greased with sugar syrup which is prepared in a proportion of two. parts sugar and part water, then after 2-3 days, after it hardens, grease with very little honey and, as time allows, we insert this frame at the edge of the nest.

7 things you didn't know about bee life

Bees, like ants, are insects with a complex social life that continue to amaze even scientists. They are essential for nature, being an invisible force that pollinates over 75% of the plants we grow. In addition, they provide us with bee products that are so tasty and important for our health.

Next we want you to present some curiosities about bees, numbers.

Did you know that. Are there about 60,000 bees in a hive?

& Icircntr in a hive lives a single swarm, a single family of bees. The swarm is made up of three types of bees: a queen (queen), worker bees and beekeepers. The queen or queen is the mother of all the bees in the hive. In a hive, about 90% are worker bees and 10% are beekeepers.

Did you know that. the queen lays 2,000 eggs in one day?

The queen is the only female sexually developed in the hive and her job is to lay eggs. One week after birth, the queen begins to lay about 1500-2000 eggs a day. The queen is the only bee in the hive that is fed exclusively on royal jelly.

Pure royal jelly is produced by nurse bees and, due to its complex composition, has the extraordinary property of prolonging the life of the creature that feeds on it systematically and stimulates reproductive function. Perhaps because it feeds only on pure royal jelly, the queen lives fifty times longer than a working bee and manages to lay such a large number of eggs each day. And the weight of the queen is two to three times greater than that of a working bee.

Did you know that. Do bees in a hive visit 225,000 flowers every day?

In a single expedition, a bee visits 50-100 flowers. The bees gather the nectar of the flowers in a stomach pocket and the pollen on their hind legs. For one gram of nectar, a bee has to make about 60 fills and empties of this pocket and carols about 1,000 flowers. And all this, just for a gram of nectar & hellip Although the result of the work of a bee seems insignificant, their work & icircnsumata can gather & icircn hive, & icircn in one day, about 7 kg of nectar.

Did you know that. do bees in a hive travel 8,000 km for 1 kg of honey?

The flight radius of a bee is 2-3 kilometers around the hive. In general, a bee travels about 800 km during its lifetime. The leading cause of death for a worker bee is exhaustion. The muscles and wings of bees only support a certain flight time. When this flight interval is reached, the bee will be unable to fly. Maybe that's why bees have a lifespan of only 30 days.

Did you know that. are bees moving at an average speed of 24km / h?

The maximum speed at which a bee can fly is 70 km / h, while when it is loaded with pollen and nectar its speed is only 20 km / h.

Did you know that. does a bee have 12,000 wing beats per minute?

Bees can beat their wings very fast, 200 beats / second, which results in the specific buzz. Bees use their wings not only to fly, but also to ventilate the air in the hive on hot days, to create an optimal temperature and to dehydrate the nectar collected and stored in the hive. Raw honey is produced from nectar collected from flowers, stored in honeycomb and dehydrated. The bees remove water from the nectar by flapping their wings, leaving a humidity of 17%.

Did you know that. does a bee produce 1/12 of a teaspoon of honey?

The worker bees collect the nectar of the flowers and bring it to the hive, where, through a very complex process, it turns into honey. The honey collected in summer is used as a source of food and survival in the cold season, when the bees stay in the hive in the form of bunches to warm the queen and them.

Raw honey is a food with a sweet and fragrant taste, with a semi-fluid, viscous or crystallized appearance and a specific color, with a high content of sugars and minerals, vitamins, enzymes, organic acids. The color of honey is given by the colored substances found in the collected nectar. The color varies from colorless to black. Yellow nectar predominates. The honey gathered at the beginning of spring has a bright yellow color, turning orange. Over time, the honey loses its original color, usually darkening in color, and during crystallization it opens.

In the end, I would like to ask you something: Why did you read these curiosities about bees with such interest? Why are there so many insects on this earth that bees are the ones that arouse our most interest and sympathy? Maybe because bees are the only insects that offer us with such generosity the products they make with a lot of effort?

This is certainly why bees are loved and cared for by humans. But did you know that in addition to raw honey, bees provide us with other products such as: pure royal jelly, raw pollen, pasture and propolis? They are generically called bee products and are recognized and used around the world for their extraordinary health benefits.

Sea buckthorn and honey go very well together, this mix being a natural preparation with a high content of nutrients. Of course, you can eat sea buckthorn separately, but in combination with honey, the taste becomes richer and sweeter.

Here's how to make sea buckthorn with honey:

1. Sea buckthorn recipe with honey in a jar

Wash the sea buckthorn berries and add them to a jar, then pour honey until the jar is full. The correct proportion is: two parts sea buckthorn seeds to one part honey. Eventually, you can fork the sea buckthorn seeds with a fork and mix them with honey in a jar.

Before consumption, the mixture should be left to soak for a maximum of 3 weeks.

2. Sea buckthorn recipe with honey and aloe vera

Another recipe you can try is the one with aloe vera. Fill half a jar with sea buckthorn berries with honey, add 100 ml of aloe vera gel, 5-6 tablespoons of pollen and 50 ml of garlic paste and mix well.

Bee venom, a real medicine for rheumatism

Bee venom is a special liquid secreted by special bee glands at the bottom of the insect. The secreted venom is stored in a venom bladder which is then removed at the time of the needle prick.

Bee venom treatments have been known since time immemorial, perhaps older and more famous than honey-based ones. Many old documents attest to the use of bees for stings in the treatment of certain diseases. So far, the results of treatments with this fluid in the cure of rheumatic diseases, and not only, have been remarkable.

Being an extremely complex organic liquid, venom was among the few substances studied so well. His analysis found that it contained toxic proteins, lipids, organic acids, mineral oils, water and mineral salts. In contact with air it solidifies in about 20 minutes so it must be used directly in the apiary.

Bee venom causes the destruction of red blood cells and the outflow of blood through vessels causing blockage of nerves. Today bee venom is used in the treatment of asthma, migraines, rheumatism, etc. Very good results have also been obtained in the treatment of neurological diseases such as neuralgia.

Bee venom has no antidote even if it is very toxic and does not produce defenses of the body when it comes into contact with this substance. Although it is excellent in resolving diseases, it can be extremely dangerous for those with allergies.

Also bee venom is contraindicated in tuberculosis, acute infectious diseases, certain mental illnesses, nephritis, venereal diseases, diabetes, exhaustion of the body.

The most effective cure is done only in an apiary because the active venom quickly loses its properties in contact with air or water. But it should be known that all treatments of this kind must be done under the direct guidance of a specialist in the field.

What alcohol do we use for homemade blueberries? What strength (how many degrees) does a fine homemade liqueur have?

Here ONLY blueberries should be the "main character" and not the various undefined fruits of which some make "brandy, brandy or brandy". Here we are not talking about the authentic plum brandy or the clean brandy of pears, apricots or cherries that have over 55 ° even up to 60 °. These are not spoiled by a healthy person to prepare liqueur… In general, people have the impression that any "homemade" distillate with a few degrees of strength is good to put in cherries or other liqueurs. Wrong! Fine liqueurs are made with double refined alcohol or vodka because these two are neutral in terms of smell and do not interfere with the main ingredient: mint, raspberries, cherries, sour cherries, quinces, etc. - I leave the recipes at the end. Vodka and commercially refined double alcohol are made from cereals or potatoes, so they are also natural. A fine homemade liqueur must have an alcoholic strength between 22 and 30 degrees.

Of course forest blueberries they will give a darker color to this liqueur while those from the farm (which have a thicker shell and a white core) will lead to a more rosy refining. I also refined it with blueberries from the supermarket (farm) and its color was much paler & # 8211 the recipe here.

This time I used wild blueberries bought from the market in Arad. From the ingredients below it results approx. 1.2 L of traditional homemade blueberries or blueberry liqueur.

Top: rub the egg with the sugar and butter, then add honey (if you put more honey than, the dough comes out very hard, it can not be stretched), milk and baking soda. Stir on steam until thickened. Remove from the steam and immediately add the flour gradually. It is divided into 4 parts, it is spread with a lot of flour. Bake over high heat on the back of the tray (cold) greased with fat and sprinkled with flour.

Cream: rub the butter with the vanilla and the sugar until it foams. Separately boil the milk with the semolina and leave to cool. When it has cooled, mix it with butter. Glaze: Boil everything over low heat until the composition thickens. The first sheet is greased with ½ of cream. Second countertop with jam. The third with the rest of the cream. The fourth top is greased with icing.

The bee cake with honey leaves and jam is left to soften the tops after which you can cut rhombuses or squares, it is very good for Christmas.

Filling (assembling) Albinita cake (Dulcineea)

I divided the semolina cream with butter in 2. I also opened a jar with raspberry jam, own production (recipe here). I chose raspberries because it has a great aroma and is also slightly sour. You can use apricot jam, rosehip or which you like.

I put aside the most beautiful sheet & # 8211 it will be the cover. I filled the rest of the sheets as follows: sheet 1 + semolina cream + sheet 2 + jam layer + sheet 3 + semolina cream + sheet 4 (lid).

I pressed lightly with my palm to place the sheets well and I placed a weight on the cake (a clean baking paper over which I put a tray with 2 cards placed next to each other). I left the cake in the pantry until the next day. Then I lifted the weight off it and left the Albinita cake to simmer for another 24 hours (about 2 days it's good to stay, even 3).

Video: The Spiders and the Bees